Mediland Diagnostic

About Us

Mediland team provides a fair number of consultancy to medical professionals as well as people who intend to diversify themselves into medical profession, we provide a good deal of consultancy for setups starting from mini collection centers to large hospitals , where sky is the limit with our state-of-art infrastructure and dedicated professionals of different respective fields like project consultants, software consultants, manufacturers /dealers /sellers of all type of scientific instruments & appliances on a very discounted rates & charges, these consultancy services have been formulated only to provide excellent support & help to our clients/followers /friends & fans, in a move of sharing our experience in a manner that any new comer does not get cheated by any company and also to monitor that a new comer gets all the infrastructure in a good reasonable price Quality & service.

Our Team

Dr. Naren Pandey, is the source of inspiration behind the concept of MEDILAND & is Heading the organisation, is a consultant allergy & asthma physician and immunotherapist and a consultant at Belle Vue Clinic, Kolkata, and additionally done degree in asthma from U.K., and has more than 52 research papers both international & national into his account. He is a member in different forum both nationally and internationally, member of indian academy of allergy, member of world allergy organization, member of European Association of allergy & clinical immunology, International Affiliate Member – American college of allergy asthma and immunology. Managing Editor of Research Collaborator Bose Institute, Skin Doctors Communiqué and associated to many other organizations.

Team Members

  • Dr. Anjan Das is Consultant Cyto & Histopathologist Asst. Professor National Medical College & Hospital (Kolkata)
  • Dr. T. Dhar is a senior consulting pathologist & microbiologist.
  • Dr. Nazir Abdul Wasim is a senior pathologist. Assistant Prof Dept of Pathology Dr. B. C. Roy PG of Institute of Paecific Sciencers, Kolkata

ALLERGY TEST

What is Allergy

Allergy is the hypersensitivity to any allergic compound which results in symptoms, which may comprise of food, pollens of trees & shrubs fungi, animal dander, insects dust etc. Which are present in our atmosphere

What symptoms arise of allergic disorder?

There may be frequent symptoms of respiratory distress, shortness of breath, recurrent cough & cold, severe sneezing, watery running nose, urticaria, redness of eyes, gastro-intestinal discomfort etc may arise from allergic disordeR.

What are the modalities of diagnosis?

For the diagnosis of allergy now-a days there are two type of testing available
1. In-Vitro Testing
2. In-Vivo Testing
The invitro testing is done by serum / blood and the test is done by elise / cila / rast method and none of the allergen are of Indian origin as these testing chemicals / kits have to be imported and in the In-vitro testing modified skin prick is done with lancets and the results are interpreted by the allergy specialist.

How much time is required for the skinprick testing?

It requires about 30 – 40 minutes for a patient to undergo the allergy test by modified prick method where in 144 allergents

What is the drawback of the serum allergy tested?

As discussed earlier that the serum allergy testing is done by C.L.I.A/elisa/rast etc. Methods none of the reagents are of Indian origin and are imported from western countries which are of cold temperament and allergic disorder is a local environmental problem where in local air borne allergens are responsible to the extent of 80% and thus the serum allergy testing as the skin prick testing is only based for allergen extract immunotherapy treatment procedure.

What is Aero Allergens?

Aero allergens are those allergens which enters our body while inhailing air through nostrils during the respiratory procedure, which are present in our atmosphere like pollens, fungi, dust, mites, etc.

What is the treatment procedures?

Generally the clinicians treat their patients with anti-allergics, anti-histamines, broncodialators and of course sometimes with steroids, in this treatments the patient have relief till the medicine works and become symptomatic as soon as the medication is withdrawn but so far allergy is concerned we do allergen immunotherapy with allergen extracts which desensitizes the air be one allergens giving full relief to the patient.

Is the treatment is safe or there are any side effects?

Yes, the treatment is safe and has no side effects, W.H.O also has given Guidelines of safety & efficacy of specific immunotherapy

What is the procedure of administration of immunotherapy vaccines?

We do sub-linguial immunotherapy which is in form of oral drops to be taken under the Tounge, there are no injections.

LUNG FUNCTION TEST

What Are Lung Function Tests?

Lung function tests, also called pulmonary (PULL-mun-ary) function tests, measure how well your lungs work. These tests are used to look for the cause of breathing problems, such as shortness of breath


Types of Lung Function Tests

Breathing Tests (Spirometry)

Spirometry measures how much air you breathe in and out and how fast you blow it out. This is measured two ways: peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1).

PEFR is the fastest rate at which you can blow air out of your lungs. FEV1 refers to the amount of air you can blow out in 1 second.

During the test, a technician will ask you to take a deep breath in. Then, you’ll blow as hard as you can into a tube connected to a small machine. The machine is called a spirometer.


Lung Volume Measurement

Body plethysmography (pleth-iz-MOG-re-fe) is a test that measures how much air is present in your lungs when you take a deep breath. It also measures how much air remains in your lungs after you breathe out fully.

During the test, you sit inside a glass booth and breathe into a tube that’s attached to a computer.

For other lung function tests, you might breathe in nitrogen or helium gas and then blow it out. The gas you breathe out is measured to show how much air your lungs can hold.

Lung volume measurement can help diagnose pulmonary fibrosis or a stiff or weak chest wall.


Lung Diffusion Capacity

This test measures how well oxygen passes from your lungs to your bloodstream. During this test, you breathe in a type of gas through a tube. You hold your breath for a brief moment and then blow out the gas.

Abnormal test results may suggest loss of lung tissue, emphysema (a type of COPD), very bad scarring of the lung tissue, or problems with blood flow through the body’s arteries.


Tests To Measure Oxygen Level

Pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas tests show how much oxygen is in your blood. During pulse oximetry, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen is in your blood. This test is painless and no needles are used.

For an arterial blood gas test, a blood sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist. The sample is sent to a laboratory, where its oxygen level is measured. You may feel some discomfort during an arterial blood gas test because a needle is used to take the blood sample


Testing in Infants and Young Children

Spirometry and other measures of lung function usually can be done for children older than 6 years, if they can follow directions well. Spirometry might be tried in children as young as 5 years. However, technicians who have special training with young children may need to do the testing.

Instead of spirometry, a growing number of medical centers measure respiratory system resistance. This is another way to test lung function in young children.

The child wears nose clips and has his or her cheeks supported with an adult’s hands. The child breathes in and out quietly on a mouthpiece, while the technician measures changes in pressure at the mouth. During these lung function tests, parents can help comfort their children and encourage them to cooperate.

Very young children (younger than 2 years) may need an infant lung function test. This requires special equipment and medical staff. This type of test is available only at a few medical centers.

The doctor gives the child medicine to help him or her sleep through the test. A technician places a mask over the child’s nose and mouth and a vest around the child’s chest.

The mask and vest are attached to a lung function machine. The machine gently pushes air into the child’s lungs through the mask. As the child exhales, the vest slightly squeezes his or her chest. This helps push more air out of the lungs. The exhaled air is then measured.

In children younger than 5 years, doctors likely will use signs and symptoms, medical history, and a physical exam to diagnose lung problems.

Doctors can use pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas tests for children of all ages.

RESPIRATORY TEST

What Are Respiratory Tests?

Respiratory function tests are part of the clinical assessment of many respiratory diseases. The tests can measure individual parts of the respiratory process and, therefore, need to be selected appropriately. Spirometry is the basic screening test for assessing mechanical load problems. Arterial blood gas analysis yields considerable information about gas exchange efficiency while tests of gas transfer assess alveolar-capillary surface function. When specifically indicated, assessing bronchial reactivity and the response to exercise can help in the evaluation of breathlessness

Types of Respiratory Tests


Simple measurements of respiratory load

Increases in the respiratory load to breathing are very common. Resistive load increases, such as asthma, obstructive bronchitis, cystic fibrosis and emphysema, impair airflow. Elastic load increases such as interstitial fibrosis, muscle paralysis and obesity impair lung inflation. The quantitation of respiratory load involves determining the vital capacity and the speed of maximal expiratory flow.

The peak flow meter is widely promoted as a simple lung function monitor. Serial measurements in conditions such as asthma provide valuable information about disease progress. However, peak expiratory flow (the earliest portion of forced expiration) is very effort-dependent. Also, peak flow measurements give no information about elastic load abnormalities.


Lung Volume Measurement

Body plethysmography (pleth-iz-MOG-re-fe) is a test that measures how much air is present in your lungs when you take a deep breath. It also measures how much air remains in your lungs after you breathe out fully.

During the test, you sit inside a glass booth and breathe into a tube that’s attached to a computer.

For other lung function tests, you might breathe in nitrogen or helium gas and then blow it out. The gas you breathe out is measured to show how much air your lungs can hold.

Lung volume measurement can help diagnose pulmonary fibrosis or a stiff or weak chest wall.


Asthma

Asthma is a common cause of airflow limitation. The reversibility of the airways obstruction is usually assessed by spirometry before and after a bronchodilator aerosol. An increase of 10% or more in either vital capacity or FEV1 is taken to indicate significant reversibility, although, of course, not necessarily the maximum reversibility achievable.

When the suspicion of asthma is not confirmed by spirometry, a challenge procedure can be used to assess abnormal bronchial reactivity. This may involve the patient exercising or inhaling histamine, methacholine, hypertonic saline or cold air. Each challenge has its own protocol and risks, and these challenges are best performed in a well-supervised laboratory. Bronchial hyper reactivity is not synonymous with asthma. Although the vast majority of patients with ongoing asthma will have brisk reactivity, most people with a past history of asthma will have intermediate reactivity and some asymptomatic people with no past history will have a degree of bronchial reactivity. Bronchial reactivity is often expressed as the percentage concentration or dose of an agent that produces an acute fall of 20% in FEV1 (PC20 or PD20). Laboratories performing these challenges will usually have established their `normal reactivity’ values.


Tests To Measure Oxygen Level

Pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas tests show how much oxygen is in your blood. During pulse oximetry, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen is in your blood. This test is painless and no needles are used.

For an arterial blood gas test, a blood sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist. The sample is sent to a laboratory, where its oxygen level is measured. You may feel some discomfort during an arterial blood gas test because a needle is used to take the blood sample.


Simple measurements of gas exchange

Normal gas exchange requires adequate alveolar ventilation, normal ventilation/blood flow relationships and adequate alveolar-capillary membrane surface area. There are tests of varying sophistication which specifically examine each of these functions.


Tests To Measure Oxygen Level

Pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas tests show how much oxygen is in your blood. During pulse oximetry, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen is in your blood. This test is painless and no needles are used.
For an arterial blood gas test, a blood sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist. The sample is sent to a laboratory, where its oxygen level is measured. You may feel some discomfort during an arterial blood gas test because a needle is used to take the blood sample.


Alveolar ventilation

This is not easy to measure directly, as it is not a simple function of the volume of expired air passing the mouth each minute (i.e. the minute ventilation). The size of the dead space (alveolar dead space, connecting tubing volume and tracheobronchial tree) is often uncertain. This uncertainty, combined with the influence of the breathing pattern, means that minute ventilation may be a very misleading estimate of alveolar ventilation. To overcome this difficulty, the arterial carbon dioxide tension is used as an inversely proportional index of `effective’ alveolar ventilation. Hence, a normal arterial carbon dioxide tension is taken to indicate satisfactory alveolar ventilation. Elevated or reduced carbon dioxide tensions reflect alveolar hypoventilation or hyperventilation respectively.


Ventilation/blood flow relationships

These are most simply assessed by considering the lungs as a gas exchanger. Its efficiency is rated by the size of the difference between the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and in the air. If the lungs are working efficiently the differences in composition will be small. Non-uniformity of ventilation/blood flow ratios will result in abnormally wide differences – the alveolar-arterial PO2 and arterial-alveolar PCO2 gradients will be abnormal. The oxygen tension gradient is normally less than 10% of the inspired oxygen tension. This simple index can be calculated using the alveolar gas equation.


Alveolar-capillary surface area

This is assessed by one of several techniques measuring the uptake of carbon monoxide, a gas with affinity for blood and which is easily analysed. Although sometimes designated as tests of diffusion, these techniques are much more influenced by effective alveolar-capillary area and therefore are now more commonly termed gas transfer tests. Although many factors influence the result, these tests are usually abnormal in diffuse interstitial inflammatory and fibrotic processes and in emphysema. They are useful in the subclassification of restrictive conditions (those with and without gas transfer impairment) and in determining the probable extent of emphysema in patients with chronic airflow obstruction. They are commonly used in following patients’ response to therapy in such conditions as sarcoidosis and fibrosing alveolitis.


Simple exercise testing

Tests performed during exercise provide information about overall fitness and the appropriateness of cardio respiratory responses. They can be elaborate procedures following cardiac output, pulmonary haemodynamics, gas exchange and anaerobic metabolism measurements at varying grades of exercise, but this type of study has little place in everyday practice. Observations made during a six-minute walk test can provide useful objective information provided the subject is induced to co-operate fully. The actual distance walked, the degree of breathlessness experienced and the change in blood oxygen level (assessed by portable oximetry) are data which can be obtained simply. These data are required before some authorities will agree to provide portable domiciliary oxygen. The extent of exercise limitation due to mechanical load excess agrees reasonably well with the degree of impairment on spirometry


When to use respiratory function tests?

The most common reason for studying pulmonary function is in the analysis of breathlessness. The application of simple tests of load (spirometry3), gas exchange (arterial blood gas analysis5) and gas transfer will usually allow conclusions as to whether or not the complaint is reasonably based.

In hospital practice, the gas exchanging aspects of pulmonary function become important in the assessment and management of acute respiratory failure.

Respiratory function tests are also widely used to assess fitness for surgery, fitness to undertake certain occupations or to assess the degree of impairment in work-related lung conditions.